[P2P-F] Fwd: Henry Giroux: Militant Hope in the Age of Trump

Michel Bauwens michelsub2004 at gmail.com
Thu Jan 19 04:57:12 CET 2017

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From: Tikkun <magazine at tikkun.org>
Date: Thu, Jan 19, 2017 at 3:34 AM
Subject: Henry Giroux: Militant Hope in the Age of Trump
To: Michelsub2004 at gmail.com


You can read this online at http://www.tikkun.org/nextgen/henry-giroux-on-



Editor's note:

We are proud to announce that Professor Henry Giroux has just joined
Tikkun's editorial board as a Contributing Editor. You can read his amazing
article on education at http://www.tikkun.org/nextgen/defending-educators-
appears in the Fall, 2016 issue of Tikkun magazine). We at the Network of
Spiritual Progressives are building the kind of broad based movement that
Giroux calls for in this article, though we call it a movement for a world
of love and justice (read about it at www.tikkun.org/covenant
and put great emphasis on our commitment to nonviolence because the means
must be as ethical as the ends we seek. But nonviolence does not mean
passivity, as MLKjr demonstrated so powerfully in the 1960s. --Rabbi
Michael Lerner  rabbilerner.tikkun at gmail.com

Militant Hope in the Age of Trump
Henry A. Giroux

The United States stands at the endpoint of a long series of attacks on
democracy, and the choices faced by the American public today point to the
divide between those who are committed to democracy and those who are not.
Debates over whether Donald Trump was a fascist or Hillary Clinton was a
right-wing warmonger and tool of Wall Street were a tactical diversion. The
real questions that should have been debated include: What measures could
have been taken to prevent the United States from sliding further into a
distinctive form of authoritarianism? And what could have been done to
imagine a mode of civic courage and militant hope needed to enable the
promise of a radical democracy? Such questions take on a significant
urgency in light of the election of Donald Trump to the presidency. Under
such circumstances, not only is the public in peril, it is on the brink of
collapse as the economic, political, and cultural institutions necessary
for democracy to survive are being aggressively undermined. As Robert
Kuttner observes:
[image: Anti-Trump protest in Chicago]

“It is hard to contemplate the new administration without experiencing
alarm bordering on despair: Alarm about the risks of war, the fate of
constitutional democracy, the devastation of a century of social progress.
Trump's populism was a total fraud. Every single Trump appointment has come
from the pool of far-right conservatives, crackpots, and billionaire
kleptocrats. More alarming still is the man himself – his vanity,
impulsivity, and willful ignorance, combined with an intuitive genius as a
demagogue. A petulant fifth-grader with nuclear weapons will now control
the awesome power of the U.S. government. One has to nourish the hope that
Trump can yet be contained. Above all, that will take passionate and
strategic engagement, not just to resist but to win, to discredit him and
get him out of office while this is still a democracy. We can feel sick at
heart – we would be fools not to – but despair is not an option.”[1]
A Call for Resistance

Kuttner rightly mediates such despair with a call for resistance. Yet, such
deep-seated anxiety is not unwarranted given the willingness of
contemporary politicians and pundits during the 2016 presidential battle to
use themes that echoed alarmingly fascist and totalitarian elements of the
past. According to Drucilla Cornell and Stephen D. Seely, Trump's campaign
mobilized a movement that was “unambiguously fascist.”[2]

“We are not using the word ‘fascist’ glibly here. Nor are we referencing
only the so-called ‘alt-right’ contingent of his supporters. No, Trump's
entire movement is rooted in an ethnic, racial, and linguistic nationalism
that sanctions and glorifies violence against designated enemies and
outsiders, is animated by a myth of decline and nostalgic renewal and
centered on a masculine cult of personality.”[3]

Large segments of the American public, especially minorities of class and
color, have been written out of politics over what they view as a failed
state and the inability of the basic machinery of government to serve their
interests. As market mentalities and moralities tighten their grip on all
aspects of society, democratic institutions and public spheres are being
downsized, if not altogether disappearing. As these institutions vanish –
from public schools to healthcare centers – there is also a serious erosion
of the discourses of community, justice, equality, public values, and the
common good. This grim reality has been called a “failed sociality” – a
failure in the power of the civic imagination, political will, and open
the consolidation of power by the corporate and financial elite empties
politics of any substance, the political realm merges elements of Monty
Python, Kafka, and Aldus Huxley. With the election of Donald Trump, the
savagery of neoliberalism has been intensified with the emergence at the
highest levels of power of a toxic mix of anti-intellectualism, religious
fundamentalism, nativism, and a renewed notion of American exceptionalism.
Mainstream politics is now dominated by hard-right extremists who have
brought to the center of politics a shameful white supremacist ideology,
poisonous xenophobic ideas, and the blunt, malicious tenets and practices
of Islamophobia.

The older political establishment's calls for regime change and war are now
supplemented by the discourse of state sanctioned torture, armed ignorance,
and a deep hatred of democracy. Neoliberalism, with its full-fledged
assault on the welfare state and public goods, the destruction of the
manufacturing sector, and a dramatic shift in wealth to the upper 1 per
cent, has destroyed the faith of millions in democracy, which lost its
power to contain the rich and the rule of financial capital. With the
erosion of the social contract and the increasing power of the rich to
control both the commanding institutions of society and politics itself,
democracy has lost any legitimacy as a counter weight to protect the ever
widening sphere of people considered vulnerable and disposable. The result
has been that the *dangerous roadmap* to neo-fascist appeals have gained
more and more credence. The end result is that large portions of the
American public have turned to Trump's brand of authoritarianism. The
future looks bleak, especially, for youth in neoliberal societies as they
are burdened with debt, dead-end jobs, unemployment, and, if you are black
and poor, the increasing possibility of being either incarcerated or shot
by the police.[5]
United States has become a war culture and immediate massive forms of
resistance and civil disobedience are essential if the planet and human
life is going to survive.

There can be little doubt that America is at war with its own ideals and
that war is being waged against minorities of color and class, immigrants,
Muslims, and Syrian refugees. Such brutality amounts to acts of domestic
terrorism and demands not only massive collective opposition but also a new
understanding of the conditions that are causing such sanctioned violence
and the need for a fresh notion of politics to resist it. This suggests
putting democratic socialism on the agenda for change.
Struggle for Democratic Socialism

The struggle for democratic socialism is an important goal, especially in
light of the reign of terror of the existing neoliberal mode of governance.
It is crucial to remember that as a firm defender of the harsh politics and
values of neoliberalism, Trump preyed on the atomization and loneliness
many people felt in a neoliberal social order that derides dependency,
solidarity, community, and any viable notion of the commons. He both
encouraged the fantasy of a rugged individualism and toxic discourse of a
hyper-masculine notion of nativism, while at the same time offering his
followers the swindle of a community rooted in an embrace of white
supremacy, a white public sphere, and a hatred of those deemed irrevocably
other. The ideology and public pedagogy of neoliberalism at the root of
Trump's embrace of a new authoritarianism must be challenged and dismantled
ideologically and politically.

Yet, the task of challenging the new authoritarianism will only succeed if
progressives embrace an expansive and relational understanding of politics.
This means, among other things, refusing to view elections as the ultimate
litmus test of democratic participation and rejecting the assumption that
capitalism and democracy are synonymous. The demise of democracy must be
challenged at all levels of public participation and must serve as a
rallying cry to call into question the power and control of all
institutions that bear down on everyday life. Moreover, any progressive
struggle must move beyond the fragmentation that has undermined the left
for decades. This suggests moving beyond single issue movements in order to
develop and emphasize the connections between diverse social formations. At
stake here is the struggle for building a broad alliance that brings
together different political movements and, as Cornell and Seely observe, a
political formation willing to promote an ethical revolution whose goal “is
not only socialism as an economic form of organization but a new way of
being together with others that could begin to provide a collectively
shared horizon of meaning.”[6]

Central to a viable notion of ideological and structural transformation is
a refusal of the mainstream politics of disconnect. In its place is a plea
for broader social movements and a more comprehensive understanding of
politics in order to connect the dots between, for instance, police
brutality and mass incarceration, on the one hand, and the diverse crises
producing massive poverty, the destruction of the welfare state, and the
assaults on the environment, workers, young people and women.

One approach to such a task would be to develop an expansive understanding
of politics that necessarily links the calls for a living wage and
environmental justice to demands for accessible quality healthcare and the
elimination of conditions that enable the state to wage assaults against
Black people, immigrants, workers and women. Such relational analyses also
suggest the merging of labour unions and social movements. In addition,
progressives must address the crucial challenge of producing cultural
apparatuses such as alternative media, think tanks and social services in
order to provide models of education that enhance the ability of
individuals to make informed judgments, discriminate between evidence based
arguments and opinions, and to provide theoretical and political frameworks
for rethinking the relationship between the self and others based on
notions of compassion, justice, and solidarity.

Crucial to rethinking the space and meaning of the political imaginary is
the need to reach across specific identities and to move beyond
single-issue movements and their specific agendas. This is not a matter of
dismissing such movements, but creating new alliances that allow them to
become stronger in the fight to not only succeed in advancing their
specific concerns but also enlarging the possibility of developing a
radical democracy that benefits not just specific but general interests. As
the Fifteenth Street Manifesto group expressed in its 2008 piece, “Left
Turn: An Open Letter to U.S. Radicals,” many groups on the left would grow
stronger if they were to “perceive and refocus their struggles as part of a
larger movement for social transformation.”[7]
feasible political agenda must merge the pedagogical and the political by
employing a language and mode of analysis that resonates with people's
needs while making social change a crucial element of the political and
public imagination. At the same time, any politics that is going to take
real change seriously must be highly critical of any reformist politics
that does not include both a change of consciousness and structural change.

If progressives are to join in the fight against authoritarianism in the
United States, they will need to create powerful political alliances and
produce long-term organizations that can provide a view of the future that
does not simply mimic the present. This requires aligning private issues to
broader structural and systemic problems both at home and abroad. This is
where matters of translation become crucial in developing broader
ideological struggles and in fashioning a more comprehensive notion of
politics. Movements require time to mature and come into fruition and
depend on an educated public that is able to address both the structural
conditions of oppression and how they are legitimated through their
ideological impact on individual and collective attitudes and modes of
experiencing the world. In this way radical ideas can be connected to
action once workers and others recognize the need to take control of the
conditions of their labour, communities, resources, and lives.

Struggles that take place in particular contexts must also be associated to
similar efforts at home and abroad. For instance, the ongoing privatization
of public goods such as schools can be analyzed within increasing attempts
on the part of billionaires to eliminate the social state and gain control
over commanding economic and cultural institutions in the USA. At the same
time, the modeling of schools after prisons can be connected to the ongoing
criminalization of a wide range of everyday behaviors and the rise of the
punishing state.

Moreover, oppressive economic, political, and cultural practices in the
U.S. can be connected to other authoritarian societies that are following a
comparable script of widespread repression. For instance, it is crucial to
think about what racialized police violence in the United States has in
common with violence waged by authoritarian states such as Egypt against
Muslim protesters. This allows us to understand various social problems
globally so as to make it easier to develop political formations that link
such diverse social justice struggles across national borders. It also
helps us to understand, name and make visible the diverse authoritarian
policies and pedagogical practices that point to the parameters of a
totalitarian society. This is especially true in addressing the ongoing
criminalization of Blacks and the rise of new forms of domestic and state
terrorism. As Nicholas Powers points out,

“The old racial line between ‘Black’ and ‘White’ has been redrawn as the
line between criminal and citizen. Up and down the class hierarchy form
poor to wealthy, Black people have to dodge violence, from macroaggressions
to economic sabotage and from public shaming to physical attacks... every
day another person of color is shot by police, and the hole left inside
families are where love ones used to breathe. The cops not only steal the
lives of our children; they steal the lives of everyone who loved them. A
part of us freezes, goes numb.”[8]
Critical Thinking, Critical Culture

In this instance, making the political more pedagogical becomes central to
any viable notion of politics. That is, if the ideals and practices of
democratic governance are not to be lost, there is a need for progressives
to address and accelerate the production of critical formative cultures
that promote dialogue, debate and, what James Baldwin once called, a
“certain daring, a certain independence of mind” capable of teaching “some
people to think and in order to teach some people to think, you have to
teach them to think about everything.”[9]
is dangerous, especially under the cloud of an impending neo-fascism,
because it is a crucial requirement for constructing new political
institutions that can both fight against the impending authoritarianism and
imagine a society in which democracy is viewed no longer as a remnant of
the past but rather as an ideal that is worthy of continuous struggle. This
merging of education, critical thinking, and politics is necessary for
creating informed agents willing to fight the systemic violence and
domestic forms of repression that mark the authoritarian policies and
repressive practices of the Trump administration.

Under the Trump presidency, the worse dimensions of a neoliberal order will
be accelerated and will include: deregulating restrictions on corporate
power, cutting taxes for the rich, expanding the military, privatizing
public education, supressing civil liberties, waging a war against dissent,
treating Black communities as war zones, and dismantling all public goods.
Such actions make it all the more imperative for progressives to challenge
a market-driven society that erodes the symbolic and affective bonds and
loyalties that give meaning to social existence. Appealing to the economic
interests of the public is important, but it is not enough. Hope has to be
fed by the lessons of history, the recognition for collective action, and
the willingness to “feel one's way imaginatively into the situation of
is not only about expanding the limits of the radical imagination, it is
also about recognizing that resistance is a necessity that has to be rooted
in a realistic assessment of the roadblocks ahead.
[image: Black Lives Matter - Toronto]

Refusing a politics of disconnection means taking on the crucial challenge
of producing a critical formative culture along with corresponding
institutions that promote a form of permanent criticism against all
elements of oppression and unaccountable power. One important task of
emancipation *is to encourage* educators, artists, workers, young people
and others to use their skills in the service of a politics in which public
values, trust and compassion can be used to chip away at neoliberalism's
celebration of self-interest, the ruthless accumulation of capital, the
survival-of-the-fittest ethos and the financialization and market-driven
corruption of the political system. Political responsibility is more than a
challenge – it is the projection of a possibility in which new
identification, affectations, and loyalties can be produced to enable and
sustain new forms of civic action, political organizations, and
transnational anti-capitalist movements. A radical democracy based on the
best principles of a democratic socialism must be written back into the
script of everyday life, and doing so demands overcoming the current crisis
of memory, agency and politics by collectively struggling for a society in
which matters of justice, equity and inclusion define what is possible.

Neo-fascism thrives on the disparagement of others, nativism,
ultra-nationalism, an appeal to violence, an unchecked individualism, and
the legitimation of an alleged preferred people to dominate others. These
are the elements of a formative culture rooted in nihilism, cynicism,
economic insecurity, unrestrained anger, a paralyzing fear, and the
collapse of public values and the ethical grammar that gives a democracy
meaning. At work here is the undeniable fact of how education is at the
center of politics, and can be used for either oppressive or emancipatory
ends. This suggests strategies aimed at the development of alternative,
progressive educational apparatuses, grounded in the pedagogical necessity
to make knowledge and ideas meaningful in order to make them critical and
transformative. This means appropriating and using the symbolic and
intellectual tools of persuasion, identification, and belief as crucial
political strategies. I am not talking about a facile appeal to a notion of
consciousness raising. Rather, I am emphasizing the necessity for
progressives to work in conjunction with labour unions, educational unions,
and other social movements to develop the institutions necessary for a
critical formative culture that can change the consciousness, desires,
identities, investments, values, while providing a sense of agency of those
who lack the tools of civic literacy and critical frames of reference
necessary for understanding the conditions that produce misery,
exploitation, exclusion, and mass resentment, all the while paving the way
for right-wing populist movements.

Under the reign of casino capitalism, democratic public spheres along with
the public they support are disappearing. One consequence is a warfare
state built not only on the militarization of the economy but also on what
my colleague Brad Evans calls “armed ignorance.” Such ignorance represents
more than a paucity of ethical and social responsibility, it is also
symptomatic of an educational and spiritual crisis in the United States. A
culture of fear, hate and bigotry has transformed American politics into a
pathology. Fear cripples reason and makes it easier for authoritarian
figures to engage in what might be called terror management. Trump's
speeches mobilized millions with the drug inducing appeal of uncertainty,
fear, and hatred. David Dillard-Wright insightful commentary on Trump's use
of fear makes clear how he used it as both a political and pedagogical
tool. He writes:

“The Trump rally speeches go through a litany of perceived threats to the
American worker: the immigrants taking ‘our’ jobs, the terrorists who want
to kill ‘us’, the media who want to silence ‘us’. Trump is no social
psychologist, but he has an instinctive sense for crowds: the purpose of
this rhetoric is to tear down the listener to a point of malleability, at
which point, he ‘alone” supplies the answer (as in his ‘I alone can fix it’
speech at the Republican National Convention in the summer). He drowns the
listener in fear and then reaches out a helping hand from the threat that
he, himself, has conjured. This verbal waterboarding breaks down the Trump
fan into a panicked rage and then channels that fear and anger into the
pretend solution of a giant wall or jailing Hillary Clinton, which not
incidentally, also places Trump at the center of power and control over his
fans’ lives. Fear actually short-circuits rational thought and gets the
rally-goer to accept the strongman as the only way to avoid the perceived

The appeal to mass produced fear legitimates a politics that tramples the
rights of minorities, young people, and dissidents. Moreover, it reinforces
a violent and corrupt lawlessness that extends from the highest reaches of
government and big corporations to the para-militarization of our schools
and police forces. Domestic terrorism becomes normalized as unarmed Blacks
are killed by the police almost weekly, while more and more members of the
population are considered excess, disposable, redundant, and subject to the
bigotry of escalating right-wing groups, corrupt politicians, and policies
that benefit the financial elite. And with the election of Donald Trump to
the Presidency, a fog of authoritarianism will all but diminish any vestige
of democracy and civic literacy. Such a prophecy is not simply the stuff of
science fiction. As David Remnick predicts the Trump administration will
usher in both a withering of public values and a democratic sensibility
leading to a dystopian social order immersed in misery, violence, and

“There are, inevitably, miseries to come: an increasingly reactionary
Supreme Court; an emboldened right-wing Congress; a President whose disdain
for women and minorities, civil liberties and scientific fact, to say
nothing of simple decency, has been repeatedly demonstrated. Trump is
vulgarity unbounded, a knowledge-free national leader who will not only set
markets tumbling but will strike fear into the hearts of the vulnerable,
the weak, and, above all, the many varieties of Other whom he has so deeply
insulted. The African-American Other. The Hispanic Other. The female Other.
The Jewish and Muslim Other. The most hopeful way to look at this grievous
event – and it's a stretch – is that this election and the years to follow
will be a test of the strength, or the fragility, of American institutions.
It will be a test of our seriousness and resolve.”[12]

The world is on the brink of nuclear war, ecological extinction, an
accelerating refugee crisis, and a growing culture saturated in violence;
yet, the public is persuaded that the burning issues of the day focus on
the breakup of Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie, Kim Kardashian's loss of
$11-million in jewelry to thieves, or the endless focus on the banality of
Reality TV and celebrity culture. In addition, violence is now treated as a
theatrical performance paving the way each day for the next news cycle
operating primarily as spectacle and entertainment. Moral and political
hysteria is in fashion and has undermined the public spheres that promote
self-reflection, dialogue, and informed judgment. Informed exchanges and
arguments that rely on evidence have been displaced by a culture of
shouting, emotion, lying, and thuggery. War comes in many forms and is as
powerful as a form of ideology and identification as it is in the service
of multiple forms of violence. Once we recognize the metrics of war as both
crisis of politics and education, we can mobilize against both its
ideological and material relations of power. But time is running out.
New Discourse, New Politics

The American public needs a new discourse to resuscitate historical
memories and develop new methods of opposition in order to address the
connections between the escalating destabilization of the Earth's
biosphere, impoverishment, inequality, police violence, mass incarceration,
corporate crime, and the poisoning of low-income communities. Once again,
not only are social movements from below needed, there is also a need to
merge diverse single-issue movements that range from calls for racial
justice to calls for economic fairness. Of course, there are significant
examples of this in the Black Lives Matter movement and the ongoing strikes
by workers for a living wage.[13]
these are only the beginning of what is needed to contest state violence,
institutionalized racism, and the savage machinery of neoliberal capitalism.

There has never been a more pressing time to rethink the meaning of
politics, justice, struggle, collective action, and the development of new
political parties and social movements. The ongoing violence against Black
youth, the impending ecological crisis, the use of prisons to warehouse
people who represent social problems, the poisoning of children due to
neoliberal fiscal policies, and the ongoing war on women's reproductive
rights, among other crises, demand a new language for developing modes of
creative long-term struggle, a wider understanding of politics, and a new
urgency to create modes of collective struggles rooted in more enduring and
unified political formations.

Such struggles demand an increasingly broad-based commitment to a new kind
of activism. We don't need tepid calls for repairing the system; instead,
we need to invent a new system from the ashes of one that is terminally
broken. We don't need calls for moral uplift or personal responsibility. We
need calls for economic, political, gender, and racial justice. Such a
politics must be rooted in particular demands, be open to direct action,
and take seriously strategies designed to both educate a wider public and
mobilize them to seize power.

Trump's willingness to rely upon openly fascist elements prefigures the
emergence of an American style mode of authoritarianism that threatens to
further foreclose venues for social justice and civil rights. The need for
resistance has become urgent. The struggle is not simply over specific
institutions such as higher education or so-called democratic procedures
such as the validity of elections but over what it means to get to the root
of the problems facing the United States. At the heart of such a movement
is the need to draw more people into subversive actions modeled after the
militancy of the labour strikes of the 1930s, the civil rights movements of
the 1950s and the struggle for participatory democracy by the New Left in
the 1960s while building upon the strategies and successes of the more
recent movements for economic, social and environmental justice such as
Black Lives Matter and Our Revolution. At the same time, there is a need to
reclaim the radical imagination and to infuse it with a spirited battle for
an independent politics that regards a radical democracy as part of a
never-ending struggle.


We need a language that reframes our activist politics as a creative act
that responds to the promises and possibilities of a radical democracy.”

None of this can happen unless progressives understand education as a
political and moral practice crucial to creating new forms of agency,
mobilizing a desire for change and providing a language that underwrites
the capacity to think, speak and act so as to challenge the sexist, racist,
economic and political grammars of suffering produced by the new
authoritarianism. The left needs a language of critique that enables people
to ask questions that appear unspeakable within the existing vocabularies
of oppression. We also need a language of hope that is firmly aware of the
ideological and structural obstacles that are undermining democracy. We
need a language that reframes our activist politics as a creative act that
responds to the promises and possibilities of a radical democracy.

Broad-based social movements cannot materialize overnight. They require
educated agents who are able to connect structural conditions of oppression
to the oppressive cultural apparatuses that legitimate, persuade, and shape
individual and collective attitudes in the service of oppressive ideas and
values. No wide-ranging social movement can develop without educating a
public about the diverse economic, political, cultural, and pedagogical
conditions that provide a discourse of critique and inquiry on the one hand
and a vocabulary of action and hope on the other. Under such conditions,
radical ideas can be connected to action once diverse groups recognize the
need to take control of the political, economic, and cultural conditions
which shape their world views, exploit their labour, control their
communities, appropriate their resources, and undermine their dignity and
lives. Yet, raising consciousness alone will not change authoritarian
societies. Though, it does provide the foundation for making oppression
visible and for developing from below what Etienne Balibar calls “practices
of resistance and solidarity.”[14]
need more than radical critique of capitalism, racism, and other forms of
oppression. Any viable struggle for justice and a radical democracy also
need to nourish a critical formative culture and cultural politics that
inspires, energizes, and provides a radical education project in the
service of a broad-based movement for democratic socialism. •



Henry A. Giroux currently is a Contributing Editor for Tikkun Magazine and
the McMaster University Professor for Scholarship in the Public Interest
and The Paulo Freire Distinguished Scholar in Critical Pedagogy. His most
recent books include The Violence of Organized Forgetting (City Lights,
2014), Dangerous Thinking in the Age of the New Authoritarianism (Routledge,
2015),   coauthored with Brad Evans, Disposable Futures: The Seduction of
Violence in the Age of Spectacle (City Lights, 2015), and America at War
with Itself (City Lights, 2016). His website is www.henryagiroux.com


Kuttner, “The Audacity of Hope
,” The American Prospect (December 16, 2016).

Cornell & Stephen D. Seely, “Seven Theses on Trump
,” Critical Legal Thinking (November 28, 2016).

Drucilla Cornell & Stephen D. Seely.

Honneth, Pathologies of Reason (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009),
p. 188.

for instance, a number of insightful articles on police violence against
people of color in Maya Schenwar, Joe Macare and Alana Yu-lan Price, eds. Who
do You Serve Who Do You Protect (Chicago: Haymarket books, 2016).

Drucilla Cornell & Stephen D. Seely.

Manifesto, Left Turn: An Open Letter to U.S. Radicals
(N.Y.: The Fifteenth Street Manifesto Group, March 2008), p. 1.

Powers, “Killing the Future: The Theft of Black Life.” In Maya Schenwar,
Joe Macare and Alana Yu-lan Price, Eds. Who do You Serve Who Do You
Protect (Chicago:
Haymarket books, 2016), p. 14.

Baldwin. James Baldwin: The last Interview and Other Conversations
(Polity Press, 2016: Cambridge, UK), p. 22.

Eagleton, “Reappraisals: What is the worth of social democracy?” Harper's
Magazine, (October 2010), p. 790.

Dillard-Wright, “Explaining the Cult of Trump
,” AlterNet (December 16, 2016).

Remnick, “American Tragedy
,” The New Yorker (November 9, 2016).

Garza, “A Herstory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement
,” The Feminist Wire (October 7, 2014).

Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “The rise of the #BlackLivesMatter movement
,” Socialist Worker.org (January 13, 2015).

Elizabeth Day, “#BlackLivesMatter: the birth of a new civil rights movement
,” The Guardian (July 19, 2015).

Petitjean, “Étienne Balibar: War, racism and nationalism
,” Verso Book Blog (November 17, 2015).

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